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Java support


This is still an alpha feature.

Adding the plug-in


Unfortunately, you have to depend on the Kotlin standard library explicitly; otherwise strange errors pop up during the compilation process.

buildscript {
dependencies {

apply(plugin = "")

dependencies {



The usage of Arrow Analysis in Java code is very similar to Kotlin. Note that you must import pre and post functions using import static for them to be considered by the plug-in. Following Kotlin's lead, the messages must be represented as lambdas, as we do below.

import static;
import static arrow.analysis.RefinementDSLKt.pre;

public class Example {
public int f(int x) {
pre(x > 0, () -> "x must be positive");
return post(x + 1, r -> r > 0, () -> "result is positive");

Class invariants

You can also define invariants for your class. In that case, the invariants go in so-called instance initializers, which are just blocks which appear within the class body. Note that mutable fields are not supported, so you need to mark those as final.

import static arrow.analysis.RefinementDSLKt.*;

final class Positive {
private final int n;

public Positive(int value) {
pre(value >= 0, () -> "value is positive");
this.n = value;

public int getValue() {
return n;

// this is the class invariant
assert this.getValue() >= 0 : "value is positive";

Note that Arrow Analysis considers parameterless functions starting with get as fields. In the snippet above we use getValue in that fashion.